e-book The Trench: Life and Death on the Western Front 1914-1918

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WWI: Life on the western front

Daily Life through History. There are conflicting theories as to the site of origin of the H1N1 strain of the influenza virus that swept across the world, infecting perhaps million; but the spread of the epidemic was amplified by forced congregate settings, mass migrations, intercontinental traffic, and abject living conditions. Spain did not enter the conflict and was less engaged in requiring censorship or promoting propaganda. In addition to trench warfare itself, World War I gave us trench-warfare disease terms: trench foot or immersion foot, a noninfectious, nonfreezing, damp exposure injury that often led to gangrene, often necessitating amputations , and trench mouth acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, a painful, fast-moving, noncontagious infection by mostly anaerobic bacteria, particularly Fusobacterium, Prevotella intermedia, and spirochete species.

follow url It also gave us the term trench fever , the sudden onset of undulating fever, headache, and dizziness, caused by Bartonella quintana infection, for which the principal vector is the human body louse. Infection with B.

Unfortunately, with increasing antimicrobial drug resistance, we are also burdened with fear of a return to a setting in which we have few defenses against the most common of infectious disease foes. Suggested citation for this article : Chorba T.

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Trench conflict with combatants and infectious disease. Emerg Infect Dis. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.

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Journal List Emerg Infect Dis v. Terence Chorba.


Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Keywords: art science connection, emerging infectious diseases, Ernst Liebenauer, In Entrenchment, World War I, Trench Conflict with Combatants and Infectious Disease, World War I, influenza, influenza viruses, viruses, Bartonella, bacteria, trench conflict, combatants, about the cover.

Copyright notice. Open in a separate window. Footnotes Suggested citation for this article : Chorba T. References 1. Aichelburg W. Anstead GM. The centenary of the discovery of trench fever, an emerging infectious disease of World War 1. Lancet Infect Dis. Cornwall M. The undermining of Austria-Hungary: the battle for hearts and minds. London: St. Bartonella quintana characteristics and clinical management.